COVID-Haematological-Labs

The impact of COVID-19 on the haematology laboratory

COVID-19, a disease caused by a virus SARS-CoV-2, was first detected in patients in Wuhan China in November 2019. Since then SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in patients in over 100 countries and has caused a pandemic that has shaken the world economy and almost every country’s individual healthcare system. Not since the H1N1 (“Spanish Flu”) […]

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FRCPath-Part-Two-revision

The What and Whys of the FRCPath Haematology Part Two Examinations

The ‘Fellowship Examination of the Royal College of Pathologists’ (FRCPath) is a stringent set of examinations, structured into two parts, designed to test and ensure competence for want-to-be Haematology Consultants. Successful completion of the FRCPath is a requirement for obtaining the Certificate of Completion of Training (CCT) for Haematology. Upon passing your FRCPath part one […]

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FRCPath-Part-One-MCQ-Haematology

FRCPath Haematology Examinations in Brief

FRCPath Haematology Examinations explained The ‘Fellowship Examination of the Royal College of Pathologists’ (FRCPath) are a stringent set of examinations, structured into two parts, designed to test and ensure competence for want-to-be Haematology Consultants. Successfully completing the FRCPath is a requirement for obtaining the Certificate of Completion of Training (CCT) for Haematology. FRCPath haematology part […]

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Hodgkin lymphoma

Hodgkin lymphoma

In the background are eosinophils, increased myeloid precursors and increased small lymphocytes and plasma cells.  Cell A is a binucleate Reed‐Sternberg (RS) cells but can easily mis-diagnosed as a binucleate plasma cell (cell B). RS cells are characteristic of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. The diagnosis was confirmed by trephine biopsy with the Hodgkin and Reed‐Sternberg cells […]

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Trypanosoma cruzi

Trypanosoma cruzi

The worm like trypomastigote form has a slender form with a central nucleus and large kinetoplast (circular DNA inside a large mitochondrian) Curved, usually S or U shaped Worms are uniform in size Clinically Causes Chagas disease, think big heart (cardiomyopathy), big gut (enlarged colon/oesphagus) Acute and chronic disease can occur In the acute disease, […]

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My Experience as a Biomedical Science Student

I’ve just finished my second year studying Biomedical Science at Cardiff University and here’s a little about my experience so far. Biomedical Science is a broad degree, underpinning medical science. It aims to equip graduates with advanced laboratory skills and the ability to apply their scientific knowledge to a range of complex situations. It’s typically […]

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Metastatic disease

Metastatic disease

Here is a nice example of metastatic disease, specifically prostate cancer in the bone marrow You can appreciate the clumping of cells typical of non-haematopoeitic cells The bone marrow trephine also shows a very abnormal infiltrate The reason why the procedure was done because the serum PSA was low and pancytopenia Poorly differentiated prostate cancers […]

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Plasmodium Vivax

Plasmodium Vivax

This was a case of Plasmodium Vivax although Ovale is also a good call: A. Trophozite – often multiply infected with large chromatin dots B. Trophozite – Schuffner dot’s can be seen (in Gimesa stained films) C. Schizont – 12-14 merozites clustered around dark brown pigment D. Gemetocyte – large and fill the cell, pigmented […]

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Megakaryocyte emperipolesis

Megakaryocyte emperipolesis

The images show intact malignant B-ALL cells penetrating normal megakaryocytes  What is emperipolesis? It is the active penetration of one haematopoietic cell by another cell, which remains intact  It is not the same as phagoctosis. The integrity and viability of the engulfed cell differentiates the process from phagocytosis in which lysosomal enzymatic destruction ensues, and […]

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Studying for the frcpath haematology exam

The FRCPath, or ‘Fellowship Examination of the Royal College of Pathologists’, is a recognised postgraduate qualification in the field of pathology (including haematology) consisting of two parts. If you are a student undertaking the FRCPath haematology examinations you have already successfully completed a Medicine or Healthcare Sciences degree and are likely looking to take further […]

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Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia

Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia

This is of course Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia – a diagnosis not to get wrong! Not suspecting and treating this will have fatal consequences due to thrombosis and/or bleeding. If in doubt give ATRA! Urgent tests that should be requested: coagulation screen (including fibrinogen), bone marrow examination including karyotype, FISH/PCR for APL-RARA, immunophenotyping, tumour lysis bloods […]

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Leukocyte erythrocyte rosettes

Leukocyte erythrocyte rosettes

Rare but usually seen in autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) More likely to form with cells of the monocyte Form via interaction of surface Fc receptors with IgG1 or IgG3 decorated erythrocytes Rosettes have been proposed to represent a physiologic intermediate in extravascular red blood cell destruction and strongly predict clinical AIHA There existed a laboratory […]

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Leucoerythroblastosis

Leucoerythroblastosis

An interesting blood film from a patient with primary myelofibrosis with the typical features of leucoerythroblastosis. Note the rainbow of cells (and arrows ): GREEN – blast cell RED – tear drop poikilocyte or dacrocyte BLUE – large platelet/megakaryocyte fragment YELLOW – myelocyte i.e. left shifted granulocyte BROWN – nucleated red cell Patients with this […]

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Howell-Jolly bodies in neutrophils

Howell-Jolly bodies in neutrophils

Howell-Jolly bodies in neutrophils! Yes, they can occur representing detached nuclear fragments. They are most commonly seen in HIV Immunosuppressive drugs Chemotherapy Remember-always correlate with the clinical history, it will save you a lot of hassle! ________________________________________________ Subscribe today at www.blood-academy.com to continue your learning

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digital-morphology-analysers

Current state of digital morphology analysers

Automated digital analysers of blood smears has been on the rise due to the ever-progressing field of digital image analysis (by means of machine learning). Manual analysis of blood smears using light microscopy has been (and still is) the standard approach by practitioners, however, this manual method has its drawbacks such as: labour intensiveness. Require continuous […]

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Histoplasma capsulatum

Histoplasma capsulatum

These are oval-spherical in shape with a clear halo (that’s the capsule) invading neutrophils. There is also a sneaky nucleated red cell. Pseudohyphae +/- budding can also be seen from the cells (use Gomori’s methenamine silver stain to highlight them) Blastomyces dermatitidis and Cryptococcus neoformans looks similar Also look for: Haemophagocytosis Increased plasma cells Granulomas  […]

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A Guide to the FRCPath Haematology Exam

Why choose haematology as a career? For medical professionals, the specialty of haematology in the United Kingdom (UK) provides an extraordinary career option. Clinical haematology is also unique by requiring expertise in both laboratory and clinical expertise in this dynamic specialty. The potential haematology career options also reflect this, from a generalist in a district […]

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Hairy cell leukaemia

Hairy cell leukaemia

Rare but often very treatable with the purine analogue cladrabine Look long and hard for them in all patients with cytopenia(s) especially where there is also splenomegaly These lymphocytes: are medium sized have fine irregular projections contain a condensed nuclear chromatin structure and absent nucleoli are often very few in the peripheral blood What is […]

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Social media: the good, the bad and the ugly

Social media (SM) describes web-based applications that allow people to create and exchange content. It encompasses blogs and microblogs (such as Twitter), internet forums (such as doctors.net), content communities (such as YouTube and Flickr), and social networking sites (such as Facebook and LinkedIn) (1). To describe the growth of SM over the recent past as […]

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Endothelial cells

Endothelial cells

These are endothelial cells. Typical features when seen in the blood film are occur in loose sheets  pleomorphic with round to oval nuclei and variably condensed chromatin nuclei may be irregular or grooved and some cells appear to be mult-inucleated. Credit: Bain, 2013, Am J Hematologyhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ajh.23411 ________________________________________________ Subscribe today at www.blood-academy.com to continue your learning

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